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: 年入百万也不够格?看看美国人眼里怎样才算富豪

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彭博社 2018年05月23日

调查显示,美国梦并没有消失,至少还有人认同挣钱可以实现美国梦。

很多美国人认为,一个人生活毫无压力且能保持心境平和,才能称得上富有。乍看上去,对富有的定义并没有完全以金钱为中心,可细想想就会发现,人们的压力其实主要就是金钱,尤其是缺钱的时候。

美国人不喜欢承认金钱可以买到幸福。嘉信理财公司连续第二年发布的年度现代财富指数显示,只有11%的受访美国人认为“家财万贯”是富有的标志。虽然大部分受访者选择用精神层面的概念判断富有与否,不过被问到当富人需要多少钱时他们也能很快给出数字来。

嘉信理财的调查显示,美国人目前认为,如果经济状况要达到令人满意的地步,需要平均拥有140万美元,较一年前的平均水平高出20万美元。那么,资产净值达到才算富有?美国人认为平均净资产要达到240万美元,和去年在线调查1000名21岁到75岁美国人的结果相同。

调查数据还显示了一些令人鼓舞的迹象。虽然18%的受访者认为富有的定义是想要什么东西都能买得起,但也有17%的受访者认为,有相亲相爱家人朋友才算富有。这与财富管理公司United Capital首席执行官乔·杜兰的对“财富”的看法一致。他说,在人生中第一次创业又卖掉之后,“我意识到,金钱不过是一种动力。金钱是一种资源,可以多一些选择。但如果不考虑清楚努力的目标,可能离开人世时身家不菲,但人生不会很精彩。”调研中受访者要选出哪种说法最接近自己对富有的定义。结果显示,被问到日常生活中什么情况下觉得富有时,最多的答案是陪伴家人,有62%的受访者选择了这条。紧随其后的是55%受访者选择的“花时间在自己身上”,而且各年龄段都有半数以上的人如此认为,有点令人费解。不过如果没有一定家底,两件事想做到任何一件都没那么容易。

生活中偶尔奢侈的消费也让美国人觉得富有,但之所以被称为“奢侈”是有各自的原因。比如有41%的受访者认为,平时能去餐馆吃饭或者点外卖就算富有。占总人数33%的受访者认为,使用Netflix、Spotify或者亚马逊会员服务Prime之类服务就算更富有,尤其是1981年以后出生的千禧一代,如此认为的占44%。而1961年到1981年出生的X世代人和1946年到1964年出生的婴儿潮两代人中,认同的受访者分别占29%和23%。其他令人觉得富有的情况还包括“能获得医疗服务”、“能资助好友和家人”,以及“早晨能正常醒来”。各项回答里只有一项算是用不上金钱。

对于未来财务状况,千禧一代比较具有年轻人的乐观心态。约64%的二三十岁年轻人相信将来某个时候会富有(金钱方面衡量)。只有22%的婴儿潮一代人如此判断。也许更好的理财习惯会帮年轻人梦想成真。因为自称定期调整投资组合的千禧一代在同龄人之中占49%,相较占比43%的婴儿潮一代要更积极。两代人之中,对实现个人财务目标很有信心的受访者都占24%。

和其他很多金融服务公司开展的调查一样,嘉信理财此次调查也突出表明,有书面理财计划的人相对感觉更稳定,平日经济状况也更好。而约有52%的婴儿潮一代人表示,没有理财计划是因为没有余钱。选择“其他”选项的人解释说,不做理财计划是因为“不信任理财经理,特别是在2008年金融危机以后”,还有人说“我所有的信息都被犯罪分子滥用了。”在这方面能保持“心境气和”的不多。

尽管有些困难,仍然可以看到希望的曙光。上述调查显示,美国梦并没有消失,至少还有人认同挣钱可以实现美国梦。约49%的受访者称,储蓄和投资是“富有的关键”,另有40%的受访者选择通过“努力工作”变富有。

然而,还有11%的受访者认为有钱要靠运气。(财富中文网)

译者:Pessy

审校:夏林

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Many Americans cite leading a stress-free life and having “peace of mind” as their personal definition of wealth. That doesn’t sound too money-centric on the face of it—until you consider that money, or specifically the lack of it, is a major source of stress.

Americans don’t like to admit that assets can buy happiness—just 11 percent of those surveyed for the second annual Modern Wealth Index from Charles Schwab chose “having lots of money” as their definition of wealth. But while most respondents selected more high-minded concepts as their keys to contentment, they weren’t afraid to put a number on what they needed to get there.

To be financially comfortable in America today requires an average of $1.4 million, up from $1.2 million a year ago, according to the survey. The net worth needed to be “wealthy”? That’s an average $2.4 million, the same as last year in the online survey of 1,000 Americans between age 21 and 75.

There were some heartening signs amid the numbers. While 18 percent defined wealth as being able to afford anything they desired, 17 percent said it was “loving relationships with family and friends.” That jibes with how Joe Duran, chief executive officer of money manager United Capital, said he likes to think of “wealth.” After building and selling his first company, “I realized that money is nothing more than fuel,” he said. “It is a resource that lets you have choices, but if you don’t think about what you are working for, you will die rich but not live rich.” The survey asked people to choose which of the below statements came closest to their personal definition of wealth. When asked about what made respondents feel “wealthy” in their daily lives, the survey found that spending time with family was most commonly cited, at 62 percent overall. That was followed by what can be the most elusive of things, cited at about the same level across generations: “taking time for myself,” which came in at 55 percent. Hard to do either of those without some bank, though.

Life’s little luxuries matter, too—but they are called “luxuries” for a reason. Having meals out or food delivered made 41 percent of people feel “wealthy” in their daily lives. Even services such as Netflix, Spotify or Amazon Prime made life feel richer for an overall 33 percent—particularly for millennials, at 44 percent, compared with 29 percent and 23 percent for Generation X and baby boomers, respectively. Write-in comments for what made people feel “wealthy” included “access to healthcare,” “being able to help close friends and family financially” and “just waking up in the morning.” Only one of those doesn’t require money—sort of.

Millennials displayed some youthful optimism when it came to their financial future. Some 64 percent of twenty- and thirty-somethings believe they’ll be wealthy (the cash kind) at some point in their lives, compared with 22 percent of boomers. Maybe better financial habits will help that happen, since more millennials than boomers said they regularly rebalance their portfolio—49 percent compared with 43 percent, respectively. The same percentage of millennials and boomers, 24 percent, felt “very confident” about reaching financial goals.

In line with many other surveys put out by financial services firms, the Schwab survey stresses how people who have a written financial plan feel more stable and are more on top of their daily finances. Some 52 percent of boomers, however, said they didn’t have a plan because they didn’t have enough money to need a plan. People that chose “other” to explain why they lacked a financial plan wrote in responses such as “I have trust issues with financial people, especially after the 2008 crisis” and “all my information has been compromised by criminals.” Not a lot of “peace of mind” there.

Still, in these troubled times, there is hope. The survey found that the American Dream is not dead, at least the one that dictates that making money is indeed the path to bliss. Some 49 percent of respondents said that saving and investing is “the key to wealth,” with another 40 percent choosing “hard work.”

Eleven percent, however, cited luck.

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